Korean cross-cultural kids’ acculturation types and cultural adaptation

Soo Kyoung Lee, Kyoung Mi Choi, Insoo Oh

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2 Scopus citations


Korean cross-cultural kids (CCKs) are born in Korea but grow up interacting with two or more cultures. In this study, the researchers conducted a survey of 398 Korean CCKs who attended primary and secondary schools in Asia and North America to identify types of acculturation developed. Instruments used were the East Asian Acculturation Measure, the Psychological Well-Being Scale, and the Korean version of the Youth Self-Report. Cluster analysis yielded four acculturation types: integration dominant, assimilation dominant, separation dominant, and conflicting. The assimilation dominant type was pervasive among students in North America, whereas the separation dominant type was prevalent among students living in Asia. Regarding cultural adaptation, students with the conflicting acculturation type showed the lowest cultural adaptation, and the Asian students’ psychological adaptation level was found to be lower than the North American students’ level. Suggestions are offered for future researchers and helping professionals better understand the adjustment difficulties experienced by CCKs and inform adequate psychological support for them.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)131-141
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Intercultural Relations
StatePublished - Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

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© 2022 Elsevier Ltd


  • Acculturation types
  • Cross-cultural kids (CCKs)
  • Cultural adaptation
  • Third-culture kids (TCKs)


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