PURPOSE: This research was conducted to examine the relationship of knowledge, health beliefs, and self-efficacy on osteoporosis. METHOD: The design of this study was a correlative design. The subjects were 1,615 Korean adults over the age of 20 registered in a new town and participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire developed by Kim, Horan & Gendler (1991), translated into Korean. RESULTS: 1) The subjects recorded an average score of 11.10 on osteoporosis knowledge. The average scores on the osteoporosis health beliefs was 15.68 for perceived susceptibility and the respondents recorded an average score of 40.40 for osteoporosis self-efficacy. 2) There were statistically significant differences in the degree of osteoporosis knowledge, self-efficacy and health belief according to gender, age, scholastic achievement, marital state, and jobs. 3) There were statistically significant positive correlations between osteoporosis knowledge and self-efficacy. CONCLUSION: According to these results, an osteoporosis education program improving not only knowledge but also self-efficacy and health beliefs should be developed and applied to decrease the perception of barriers to exercise and intake of calcium.