Chemical and functional anisotropy in Janus materials offer intriguing possibilities for constructing complex nanostructures and regulating chemical and biological reactions. Here, the authors report the fabrication of Janus nanosheets from molecular building blocks composed of two information-carrying biopolymers, DNA and peptides. Experimental and structural modeling studies reveal that DNA–peptide diblock conjugates assemble into Janus nanosheets with distinct DNA and peptide faces. The surprising level of structural control is attributed to the exclusive parallel β-sheet formation of phenylalanine-rich peptides. This approach is extended to triblock DNA1–peptide–DNA2 conjugates, which assemble into nanosheets presenting two different DNA on opposite faces. The Janus nanosheets with independently addressable faces are utilized to organize an enzyme pair for concerted enzymatic reactions, where enhanced catalytic activities are observed. These results demonstrate that the predictable and designable peptide interaction is a promising tool for creating Janus nanostructures with regio-selective and sequence-specific molecular recognition properties.