Intrinsic and extrinsic goals: Their structure and relationship to well-being in German and U.S. college students

Peter Schmuck, Tim Kasser, Richard M. Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

228 Scopus citations

Abstract

Aspirations for intrinsic (e.g., self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling) versus extrinsic (e.g., financial success, appearance, social recognition) goals were examined in German and U.S. college students. The structure of students' goal-systems in terms of goal content was remarkably similar in the two cultures, as evidenced by examination of the ordering of goals. Also, as in past work in the U.S., German college students who were especially focused on intrinsic goals had high well-being, whereas the reverse was true for a focus on extrinsic goals. Some differences between the cultures in terms of specific goals are also discussed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)225-241
Number of pages17
JournalSocial Indicators Research
Volume50
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2000

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