Previously, we reported that glucose-deprived astrocytes were highly vulnerable to peroxynitrite (ONOO-). Here we demonstrate that the increased vulnerability caused by glucose deprivation and ONOO- depends on intracellular pH. The ONOO- releasing reagent 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1) markedly induced the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, the marker of cytotoxicity) in glucose-deprived astrocytes. Morphological studies and caspase activity assay showed that astrocytes treated together with glucose deprivation and ONOO- died mostly in a necrotic mode. Alkalinization of pH from 7.4 to 7.8 increased LDH release, whereas acidification from pH 7.4 to 7.0 decreased it. However, intracellular pH (pHi), not extracellular pH (pHe), appeared to play a critical role in the synergistic death. Thus, without a change in pHe (7.4) cytosolic acidification by a weak acid salt, sodium acetate, and a Na+/H+ antiporter inhibitor, amiloride, reduced LDH release. In contrast, a weak base, NH4Cl, and a Na+/H + antiporter stimulator, monensin, increased pHi and greatly enhanced LDH release. The augmented death was found to be due, in part, to the preceding decrease in the level of reduced glutathione, the ONOO - scavenger, and collapse of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential at alkaline pH.
|Number of pages||10|
|Journal||Free Radical Biology and Medicine|
|State||Published - 15 Oct 2004|
- Free radical
- Mitochondrial permeability transition