TiO2has been widely used as an n-type overlayer, simultaneously serving as a protective layer for photocathodes. However, the photovoltage generated from a TiO2junction with p-type absorbers, such as p-Si, Sb2Se3, SnS, and Cu2O, is insufficient. We report a dipole reorientation strategy to overcome this limitation by inserting a polyethylenimine ethoxylated (PEIE) layer between a p-type absorber and TiO2. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the PEIE dipole orientation can be rearranged by increasing the layer thickness, leading to an upward shift of the TiO2band edge. The magnitude of band shift induced by the dipole effect depends on the TiO2layer thickness. Using this approach, the onset potential was significantly improved to 0.5 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (VRHE) in a p-Si/PEIE/TiO2/Pt device. The versatility of the effective dipole reorientation strategy was demonstrated by application to a range of TiO2-protected heterojunction photocathodes based on Sb2Se3, Cu2O, and SnS.
|Number of pages||11|
|Journal||ACS Energy Letters|
|State||Published - 8 Apr 2022|