Inter-Korean People-to-People Diplomacy: Social and Cultural Exchanges across the 38th Parallel

Kadir Jun Ayhan, Siyeon Jang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


The people of the two Koreas cannot communicate directly with one another. Since the early 1990s, South and North Korea have allowed a limited number of people-to-people exchanges. In this article, we map the South Korean government's theories of change regarding inter-Korean exchanges based on policy documents and semi-structured interviews with five high-level Ministry of Unification bureaucrats. We also explore the outcomes of inter-Korean exchanges, building on ten South Korean participants' insights. Our findings suggest that the primary goals of inter-Korean social and cultural exchanges have been to expand contact between the two Koreas to alleviate the sense of mutual alienation, to increase empathy and, in turn, to reduce tensions and establish peace on the Korean Peninsula. Participant interviews reveal that direct interpersonal interaction between South and North Koreans reinforces the idea of a superordinate Korean group identity.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-38
Number of pages38
JournalThe Hague Journal of Diplomacy
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 by Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands.


  • North Korea
  • South Korea
  • conflict resolution
  • people-to-people diplomacy


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