Integration of Formal, Non-formal and Informal Learning Through MOOCs

Hyunjin Cha, Hyo Jeong So

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterpeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Since the first appearance of MOOCs in the higher education context, MOOCs have been integrated and transformed into several learning variations. In particular, by integrating formal traditional courses with informal learning approaches, MOOCs have been expanding the position as a learning platform to provide students with diverse learning experiences delivered through blended learning modalities. This chapter aims to discuss how MOOCs have been integrated into higher education contexts to blend formal, non-formal and informal learning experiences. An integration framework suggested in this chapter is based on two factors, namely credit recognition and online learning that lead to three types of MOOC-integrated learning experiences: Type I—formal MOOC learning, Type II—formal blended MOOC learning, and Type III—non-formal/informal MOOC learning. Based on this framework, we mainly illustrate three integration approaches, namely blended learning, flipped learning, and non-formal/informal learning experiences, with relevant research studies. The chapter concludes with some suggestions for research directions that can inform future research on integrating formal and non-formal/informal learning experiences through MOOCs in higher education.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationLecture Notes in Educational Technology
Number of pages24
StatePublished - 2020

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Educational Technology
ISSN (Print)2196-4963
ISSN (Electronic)2196-4971

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).


  • Blended learning
  • Flipped learning
  • Formal learning
  • Informal learning
  • MOOCs
  • Non-formal learning


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