Purpose: Carbohydrate intake increases postprandial insulin secretion and may affect breast density, a strong risk factor for breast cancer, early in life. We examined associations of adolescent and early adulthood intakes of total carbohydrates, glycemic index/load, fiber, and simple sugars with breast density among 182 young women. Methods: Diet was assessed using three 24-h recalls at each of five Dietary Intervention Study in Children (DISC) clinic visits when participants were age 10–19 years and at the DISC06 Follow-Up Study clinic visit when participants were age 25–29 years. Associations between energy-adjusted carbohydrates and MRI-measured percent dense breast volume (%DBV) and absolute dense breast volume (ADBV) at 25–29 years were quantified using multivariable-adjusted mixed-effects linear models. Results: Adolescent sucrose intakes and premenarcheal total carbohydrates intakes were modestly associated with higher %DBV (mean %DBVQ1 vs Q4, 16.6 vs 23.5% for sucrose; and 17.2 vs 22.3% for premenarcheal total carbohydrates, all Ptrend ≤ 0.02), but not with ADBV. However, adolescent intakes of fiber and fructose were not associated with %DBV and ADBV. Early adulthood intakes of total carbohydrates, glycemic index/load, fiber, and simple sugars were not associated with %DBV and ADBV. Conclusions: Insulinemic carbohydrate diet during puberty may be associated with adulthood breast density, but our findings need replication in larger studies. Clinical Trials Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT00458588 April 9, 2007; NCT00000459 October 27, 1999.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgments This work was supported by grants from the National Cancer Institute [R01CA104670 and R03 CA167764 to J.F. Dorgan] and American Institute for Cancer Research [AICR #204113 to J.F. Dorgan] and by cooperative agreements from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute [U01-HL37947 to L. Van Horn, U01-HL37948 to B.A. Barton, U01-HL37954 to V.J. Stevens, U01-HL37962 to R.M. Lauer, U01-37966 to N.L. Lasser, U01-HL37975 to P.O. Kwiterovich, and U01-HL38110 to A.M. Robson].
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- Absolute dense breast volume
- Absolute non-dense breast volume
- Breast cancer
- Breast density
- Glycemic index
- Glycemic load
- Timing of exposure
- Young women