Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) are important signaling molecules shaping vasomodulation. This paper reports simultaneous in vivo monitoring of NO, CO and dendritic summation of action potential at three different cortical regions: seizure focus and two additional places, vertically and horizontally separated by 1.2 mm from the seizure focus, during epileptic seizure induced by 4-aminopyrindine injection. An amperometric dual microsensor having a high spatiotemporal resolution monitored fast and dynamic changes of NO and CO, and neural changes were recorded with a glass pipet electrode for local field potential (LFP). At all three locations, onsets and offsets of NO and CO changes well synchronized with fast LFP changes, while the patterns and concentrations of NO and CO changes were varied depending on the sensing locations. The insertable NO/CO dual microsensor was successful to measure intimately linked NO and CO in acute seizure events with high sensitivity, selectivity, and spatiotemporal resolution.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
*E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org. *E-mail: email@example.com. ORCID Youngmi Lee: 0000-0003-2291-4666 Author Contributions Y.H. fabricated microsensors, performed in vivo experiments, and wrote the manuscript. Y.L. and M.S. planned, designed the research, and wrote the manuscript. Funding This research was supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (NRF-2017R1A2A2A14001137) and by IBS-R015-D1. Notes The authors declare no competing financial interest.
© 2017 American Chemical Society.
- amperometric sensor
- carbon monoxide
- epileptic seizure
- local field potential
- Nitric oxide