Despite its clinical promise, photodynamic therapy (PDT) suffers from a key drawback associated with its oxygen-dependent nature, which limits its effective use against hypoxic tumors. Moreover, both PDT-mediated oxygen consumption and microvascular damage further increase tumor hypoxia and, thus, impede therapeutic outcomes. In recent years, numerous investigations have focused on strategies for overcoming this drawback of PDT. These efforts, which are summarized in this review, have produced many innovative methods to avoid the limits of PDT associated with hypoxia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
J.Y. is thankful for financial support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the government of Korea (MSIP) (No. 2012R1A3A2048814). Z.L. is thankful for the financial support from the National Research Programs from Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) of China (2016YFA0201200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51525203, 51761145041), Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, and a Project Funded by the Priority Academic Program Development (PAPD) of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
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- oxygen delivery
- photodynamic therapy