The maintenance of bone is dependent on both osteoclasts, which break down bone, and osteoblasts, which build new bone. Various bone-related disorders, including osteoporosis, can occur as a result of an imbalance between these two cell types. Prolonged use of currently available bone resorption inhibitors may show side effects. Therefore, developing a novel preventive material which effectively inhibits osteoclast differentiation could be beneficial. This study planned to investigate the inhibitory effect of wheat sprout ethanolic extracts (Saegeumgang [SGG] and Arriheuk [ARH]) on the differentiation of osteoclasts induced by RANKL, as well as the mechanisms why fundamental to these effects. The effects of SGG and ARH on bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation were evaluated using RAW 264.7 cells and assessed through TRAP cell count, pit formation, and activity. The expressions of mRNA and protein were accomplished using western blotting, and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses were conducted. SGG and ARH were found to suppress osteoclast differentiation in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells without causing cytotoxic effects. In addition, treatment with SGG and ARH led to a reduction in the number of cells with positive staining for TRAP and TRAP activity. SGG and ARH treatment dose-dependently decreased the pit area in pit formation assays, showing a notable reduction compared to the pit area created by mature osteoclasts. SGG and ARH inhibited osteoclast activity by 84.9% and 95.7% at 200 μg/mL, respectively. In addition, SGG and ARH suppressed the transcriptional activation of various osteoclast-related genes, such as RANK, NFATc1, cathepsin K, c-Fos, TRAP, matrix metallopeptidase-9, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, ATPase H+ transporting v0 subunit d2, and osteoclast-associated receptor in RAW264.7 cells treated with RANKL. SGG and ARH extracts were found to affect the expression of NFATc1 and genes that are specific to osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation, suggesting their potential use as functional foods or as therapeutic interventions targeting bone health.
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© 2023, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers, and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.
- wheat sprout