Signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) promotes an anti-inflammatory process by inducing the development of M2 macrophages. We investigated whether modulating STAT6 activity in macrophages using AS1517499, the specific STAT6 inhibitor, affects the restoration of homeostasis after an inflammatory insult by regulating PPARγ expression and activity. Administration of AS1517499 suppressed the enhanced STAT6 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation observed in peritoneal macrophages after zymosan injection. In addition, AS1517499 delayed resolution of acute inflammation as evidenced by enhanced secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reduced secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines in PLF and supernatants from peritoneal macrophages, and exaggerated neutrophil numbers and total protein levels in PLF. We demonstrate temporal increases in annexin A1 (AnxA1) protein and mRNA levels in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF), peritoneal macrophages, and spleen in a murine model of zymosan-induced acute peritonitis. In vitro priming of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and peritoneal macrophages with AnxA1 induced STAT6 activation with enhanced PPARγ expression and activity. Using AS1517499, we demonstrate that inhibition of STAT6 activation delayed recovery of PPARγ expression and activity, as well as impaired efferocytosis. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the STAT6 signaling pathway mediates PPARγ expression and activation in macrophages to resolve acute inflammation.
- Acute peritonitis
- Annexin A1