Inhibition of MMP-3 or -9 suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and iNOS in microglia

Moon Sook Woo, Jin Sun Park, In Young Choi, Won Ki Kimf, Hee Sun Kim

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139 Scopus citations


Recently, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are emerging as important molecules in neuroinflammation as well as neuronal cell death. However, the role of MMPs in activated microglia remains unclear. In the present study, we found that expressions of MMP-1, -3, -8 and -9 were significantly induced by single or combined treatment of immunostimulants lipopoly-saccharide (LPS) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in primary cultured microglia and BV2 microglial cells. Inhibition of MMP-3 or -9 significantly suppressed the expression of iNOS and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the activities of NF-kB, AP-1, and MAPK in LPS-stimulated microglia. The results suggest that MMP-3 and -9 both mediate LPS-induced inflammatory reactions. Inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by N-acetyl-cysteine or diphenylene iodonium significantly suppressed the expression of MMP-3, MMP-9, NO and TNF-α in LPS-stimulated microglia, suggesting that ROS is an early signaling inducer in LPS-stimulated microglial cells. MMP inhibitors also suppressed ROS production, suggesting a cross-talk between ROS and MMPs. Collectively, the present study demonstrates that MMP-3 and MMP-9 play a role as inflammatory mediators in activated microglia. Pharmacological intervention of MMPs especially MMP-3 and -9 would be a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases in the CNS caused by over-activation of microglial cells.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)770-780
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Neurochemistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jul 2008


  • Matrix metallopro-teinase-9
  • Matrix metalloproteinase-3
  • Microglia
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Signaling pathways


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