In obesity, disturbed glutamine metabolism contributes to enhanced inflammation by inducing alterations in immune cells. As macrophages and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity-related asthma, we tested our hypothesis that altered glutamine metabolism may link obesity to airway hyperresponsivenss (AHR), a cardinal feature of asthma, focusing on these innate immune cells. Four-week-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 13 wk in the presence or absence of BPTES [Bis-2-(5-phenylacetamido-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl)ethyl sulfide, a selective inhibitor of glutaminase 1 which converts glutamine to glutamate] and their blood, lung, and adipose tissues were analyzed. We then conducted in vitro experiments using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) and mouse alveolar macrophage cell line. Furthermore, we investigated plasma glutamine and glutamate levels in obese and nonobese asthmatics. BPTES treatment prevented HFD-induced AHR and significantly decreased IL-1β+ classically activated macrophages (M1s) and type 3 ILCs (ILC3s) which increased in the lungs of HFD-fed obese mice. In in vitro experiments, BPTES treatment or glutamine supplement significantly reduced the proportion of IL-1β+NLRP3+ M1s in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BMDMs and mouse alveolar macrophage cell line. BPTES treatment also significantly reduced the IL-17 producing ILC3s differentiated from ILCs in naïve mouse lung. In addition, plasma glutamate/glutamine ratios were significantly higher in obese asthmatics compared to nonobese asthmatics. Inhibition of glutaminolysis reverses AHR in HFD-induced obese mice and decreases IL-1β + NLRP3+ M1s and IL-17 producing ILC3s, which suggests altered glutamine metabolism may have a role in the pathogenesis of obesity-related AHR.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology|
|State||Published - May 2023|
- innate lymphoid cells