Influence of Microbiota on Vaccine Effectiveness: “Is the Microbiota the Key to Vaccine-induced Responses?”

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6 Scopus citations


Vaccines are one of the most powerful tools for preventing infectious diseases. To effectively fight pathogens, vaccines should induce potent and long-lasting immune responses that are specific to the pathogens. However, not all vaccines can induce effective immune responses, and the responses vary greatly among individuals and populations. Although several factors, such as age, host genetics, nutritional status, and region, affect the effectiveness of vaccines, increasing data have suggested that the gut microbiota is critically associated with vaccine-induced immune responses. In this review, I discuss how gut microbiota affects vaccine effectiveness based on the clinical and preclinical data, and summarize possible underlying mechanisms related to the adjuvant effects of microbiota. A better understanding of the link between vaccine-induced immune responses and the gut microbiota using high-throughput technology and sophisticated system vaccinology approaches could provide crucial insights for designing effective personalized preventive and therapeutic vaccination strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)483-494
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Microbiology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (2021R1I1A1A01041639). Figures were created using and modified by Ji Young Bang and Yun Ji Kim.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Microbiological Society of Korea.


  • Adjuvants
  • Microbiota
  • Vaccine effectiveness


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