We propose an intrinsic optical method for in vivo neural recording using optic fiber-based surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomena. The fiber-based SPR method is electrical artifact free, labeling free, and feasible for a portable system compared with conventional in vivo neural recording systems. We simultaneously detected SPR signals and electrical neural activity from the rat somatosensory cortex evoked by electrical stimulation on the forepaw. Pharmacological analysis using a voltage-gated sodium channel blocker confirmed the neural origins of the optical signals. This fiber-based SPR system promises the enhanced ability to record in vivo neural activity for the investigation of neurons and their networks.