Improvement of Open-Circuit Voltage Deficit via Pre-Treated NH4+ Ion Modification of Interface between SnO2 and Perovskite Solar Cells

Jihyun Kim, Joonho Park, Yong Hoon Kim, William Jo

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9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Passivation is a popular method to increase power conversion efficiency (PCE), reduce hysteresis related to surface traps and defects, and adjust mismatched energy levels. In this paper, an approach is reported using ammonium chloride (AC) to enhance passivation effects by controlling chlorine (Cl) and ammonium ions (NH4+) on the front and back side of tin oxides (SnO2). AC pre-treatment is applied to indium tin-oxide (ITO) prior to SnO2 deposition to advance the passivation approaches and compare the completely separated NH4+ and Cl passivation effects, and sole NH4+ is successfully isolated on the SnO2 surface, the counterpart of AC-post-treatment, generating ammonia (NH3) and Cl. It is demonstrated that multifunctional healing effects of NH4+ are ascribed from AC-pre-treatment being the basis of SnO2 crystallization and adjusting bifacial interface energy levels at ITO/SnO2 and SnO2/perovskite to enhance photo-carrier transport. As calculated by density functional theory, how the change of the passivation agent from Cl to NH4+ more effectively suppresses non-radiative recombination ascribed to hydrated SnO2 surface defects is explained. Consequently, enhancement of photo-carrier transport significantly improves a superior open-circuit voltage of 1.180 V and suppresses the hysteresis, which leads to the PCE of 22.25% in an AC-pre-treated device 3.000% higher than AC-post-treated devices.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2204173
JournalSmall
Volume18
Issue number44
DOIs
StatePublished - 3 Nov 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
J.K. and J.P. contributed equally to this work. This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2018R1A6A1A03025340, NRF-2018R1D1A1B07049044, and NRF-2020R1I1A1A01068700), the Global Frontier R&D Program on the Center for Hybrid Interface Materials, the Basic Research Lab Program from Ministry of Science, Technology, ICT, and Future Planning (NRF-2021R1A2B5B02001961, 2013M3A6B1078884, 2020R1A4A2002806), the NRF grant from Korean government (NRF-2021R1A2B5B02002134), and the Samsung Research Funding & Incubation Center of Samsung Electronics (No. SRFC-TA2003-01). The computational resources were provided by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC-2021-CRE-0322). [Correction added after publication 03 November 2022: A funding number was corrected to “2013M3A6B1078884”]

Funding Information:
J.K. and J.P. contributed equally to this work. This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF‐2018R1A6A1A03025340, NRF‐2018R1D1A1B07049044, and NRF‐2020R1I1A1A01068700), the Global Frontier R&D Program on the Center for Hybrid Interface Materials, the Basic Research Lab Program from Ministry of Science, Technology, ICT, and Future Planning (NRF‐2021R1A2B5B02001961, 2013M3A6B1078882, 2020R1A4A2002806), the NRF grant from Korean government (NRF‐2021R1A2B5B02002134), and the Samsung Research Funding & Incubation Center of Samsung Electronics (No. SRFC‐TA2003‐01). The computational resources were provided by the KISTI Supercomputing Center (KSC‐2021‐CRE‐0322).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Wiley-VCH GmbH.

Keywords

  • hysteresis
  • interfacial passivation
  • NH Cl pre-treatment
  • open-circuit voltage
  • perovskite solar cells
  • photo-carrier dynamics

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