Naringin is a flavonoid found in citrus fruits. It exhibits biological activities, such as anticancer and antioxidant effects, but it suffers from low solubility and low stability in lipophilic systems. These drawbacks lead to difficulties in the commercial application of naringin, but they can be overcome through esterification. In this study, naringin oleate was synthesized by enzymatic esterification and optimal conditions for the reaction were investigated. Experiments were conducted focusing on the following parameters: enzyme type, enzyme concentration, molar ratio of naringin to oleic acid, reaction temperature, and reaction solvent. We further confirmed the degree of esterification based on the difference in the initial and the final naringin concentrations. A conversion of 93.10% was obtained under optimized conditions (Lipozyme TL IM 10 g/L, molar ratio 1:20, reaction temperature 40◦ C, acetonitrile as solvent, and 48 h reaction time). Thus, naringin oleate, a high value-added material that overcomes the low hydrophobicity of naringin and enhances its performance, was obtained through esterification of naringin using oleic acid. This study presented a method for the efficient enzymatic synthesis that could ensure high conversion within a shorter reaction time compared with that required in previously reported methods.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Mid-Career Researcher Program of the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science and ICT (MSIT) [NRF-2020R1A2C1007493] and the Bio & Medical Technology Development Program of the NRF funded by the MSIT [NRF-2018M3A9H3020459].
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
- Enzymatic synthesis
- Flavonoid ester
- Flavonoid oleate