Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative therapy for severe aplastic anemia (SAA); however, the optimal conditioning regimen for HSCT with an unrelated donor has not yet been defined. A previous study using a fludarabine (FLU), cyclophosphamide (Cy), and antithymocyte globulin (ATG) conditioning regimen (study A: 50 mg/kg Cy once daily i.v. on days −9, −8, −7, and −6; 30 mg/m2 FLU once daily i.v. on days −5, −4, −3, and −2; and 2.5 mg/kg of ATG once daily i.v. on days −3, −2, and −1) demonstrated successful engraftment (100%) but had a high treatment-related mortality rate (32.1%). Therefore, given that Cy is more toxic than FLU, we performed a new phase II prospective study with a reduced-toxicity regimen (study B: 60 mg/kg Cy once daily i.v. on days −8 and −7; 40 mg/m2 FLU once daily i.v. on days −6, −5, −4, −3, and −2; and 2.5 mg/kg ATG once daily i.v. on 3 days). Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in studies A (n = 28) and B (n = 29), and donor type hematologic recovery was achieved in all patients in both studies. The overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) rates of patients in study B was markedly improved compared with those in study A (OS: 96.7% versus 67.9%, respectively, P = .004; EFS: 93.3% versus 64.3%, respectively, P = .008). These data show that a reduced-toxicity conditioning regimen with FLU, Cy, and ATG may be an optimal regimen for SAA patients receiving unrelated donor HSCT.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial disclosure: This work was sponsored by the Korean Society of Pediatric Hematology-Oncology and supported by a grant (11172MFDS288) from Ministry of Food and Drug safety in 2011 and by a grant (03-2015-0040) from the Seoul National University Hospital Research Fund.
© 2016 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
- Antithymocyte globulin (ATG)
- Severe aplastic anemia
- Unrelated donor