Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of lower respiratory infection in young children and the elderly. Studies of mice suggest that RSV suppresses the effector activity of CD8 T cells and the development of pulmonary CD8 T cell memory, in which the impaired effector activity could be recovered by in vitro IL-2 treatment. To investigate the effect of in vivo IL-2 expression on RSV immunity, mice were infected with RSV followed by administration of replication-defective adenovirus expressing IL-2. The effector activity of RSV M2-specific CD8 T cells and the development of CD8 T cell memory in the lung was significantly increased by IL-2 expression. Furthermore, the Ab responses against RSV were augmented by IL-2. Interestingly, weight loss and illness caused by RSV challenge were substantially reduced by IL-2 priming, suggesting that the pathogenesis of RSV-related disease could be prevented by IL-2-mediated enhancement of beneficial immune responses. Thus, our results show that IL-2 has potential to be used as a vaccine adjuvant against RSV infection.