The number of femoral fractures is expected to continue to increase as the size of the older population rapidly grows. However, old age is accompanied by various comorbidities and is an important postoperative risk factor in itself, meaning that patients who undergo surgery for a femur fracture may require admission to an ICU. We investigated pulmonary complications in patients over the age of 65 admitted to the ICU after femur fracture surgery.In this single-center retrospective observational study, 289 patients over 65 years who admitted to the ICU after femur fracture surgery between June 2008 and December 2016 were investigated.Pulmonary complications occurred in 97 of these patients (33.6%) after surgery. Mean hospitalization days (34.1 ± 25.7 vs 23.1 ± 15.7, P < .001) and mean ICU length of stay (8.4 ± 16.1 vs 2.5 ± 1.1, P = .001) were significantly longer for patients with pulmonary complications than for patients without pulmonary complications after femur fracture surgery. Patients with pulmonary complications were significantly more likely to have pulmonary disease (19.6% vs 8.9%, P = .009) and exhibit sequelae on preoperative chest X-rays (9.3% vs 3.6%, P = .048) than were patients without pulmonary complications. In addition, significant differences were observed in the right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) measured during preoperative echocardiography (37.4 ± 10.9 mm Hg vs 40.7 ± 9.3 mm Hg for patients without and with pulmonary complications, P = .010) and in the proportion of each group that had an RVSP of >35 mm Hg, which is a marker for pulmonary hypertension (55.2% vs 76.3% for patients without and with pulmonary complications, P < .001). In multivariate analysis, an RVSP of >35 mm Hg during preoperative echocardiography was associated with pulmonary complications after femur fracture surgery (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.45-4.53).In conclusion, Pulmonary complications in older patients admitted to the ICU after femur fracture surgery was associated with longer hospitalization and ICU stays. Preoperative RVSP measurement could identify those older patients with a high risk of pulmonary complications following transferal to the ICU after femur fracture surgery.