Objective: To evaluate the impact of energy and access methods on extrahepatic tumor spreading and the ablation zone in an ex vivo subcapsular tumor mimic model with a risk of extrahepatic tumor spreading. Materials and Methods: Forty-two tumor-mimics were created in bovine liver blocks by injecting a mixture of iodine contrast material just below the liver capsule. Radiofrequency (RF) ablations were performed using an electrode placed parallel or perpendicular to hepatic surface through the tumor mimic with low- and high-power protocols (groups 1 and 2, respectively). Computed tomography (CT) scans were performed before and after ablation. The presence of contrast leak on the hepatic surface on CT, size of ablation zone, and timing of the first roll-off and popping sound were compared between the groups. Results: With parallel access, one contrast leak in group 1 (1/10, 10%) and nine in group 2 (9/10, 90%) (p < 0.001) were identified on post-ablation CT. With perpendicular access, six contrast leaks were identified in each group (6/11, 54.5%). The first roll-off and popping sound were significantly delayed in group 1 irrespective of the access method (p = 0.002). No statistical difference in the size of the ablation zone of the liver specimen was observed between the two groups (p = 0.247). Conclusion: Low-power RF ablation with parallel access is proposed to be effective and safe from extrahepatic tumor spreading in RF ablation of a solid hepatic tumor in the subcapsular location. Perpendicular placement of an electrode to the capsule is associated with a risk of extrahepatic tumor spreading regardless of the power applied.
Bibliographical notePublisher Copyright:
© 2019 The Korean Society of Radiology.
- Experimental liver neoplasm
- Neoplasm seeding
- Radiofrequency ablation
- Thermal ablation