Immunogenicity and safety of SARS-CoV-2 recombinant protein nanoparticle vaccine GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03: interim results of a randomised, active-controlled, observer-blinded, phase 3 trial

GBP510/AS03 study group

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Abstract

Background: GBP510 vaccine contains self-assembling, recombinant nanoparticles displaying SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domains. We report interim phase 3 immunogenicity results for GBP510 adjuvanted with AS03 (GBP510/AS03) compared with ChAdOx1-S (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca) in healthy adults aged ≥18 years, up to 6 months after the second dose. Methods: This was a randomised, active-controlled, observer-blinded, parallel group, phase 3 study, conducted at 38 sites across six countries (South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam, Ukraine and New Zealand). Cohort 1 (no history of SARS-CoV-2 infection/COVID-19 vaccination) was randomised 2:1 to receive two doses of GBP510/AS03 or ChAdOx1-S (immunogenicity and safety), while Cohort 2 (regardless of baseline serostatus) was randomised 5:1 (safety). Primary objectives were to demonstrate superiority in geometric mean titre (GMT) and non-inferiority in seroconversion rate (SCR; ≥4-fold rise from baseline) of GBP510/AS03 vs. ChAdOx1-S for neutralising antibodies against the ancestral strain by live-virus neutralisation assay. Secondary objectives included assessment of safety and reactogenicity (long-term 6 months cut-off date: 09 August 2022). This study was registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT05007951). Findings: Between 30 August 2021 and 11 January 2022, a total of 4913 participants were screened and 4036 participants (1956 in Cohort 1 and 2080 in Cohort 2) who met eligibility criteria were enrolled and randomised to receive 2 doses of GBP510/AS03 (n = 3039) or ChAdOx1-S (n = 997). Most participants were Southeast Asian (81.5%) and aged 18–64 years (94.7%). The primary objectives assessed in per-protocol set included 877 participants in GBP510/AS03 and 441 in ChAdOx1-S group: at 2 weeks after the second vaccination, the GMT ratio (GBP510/AS03/ChAdOx1-S) in per-protocol set was 2.93 (95% CI 2.63–3.27), demonstrating superiority (95% CI lower limit >1) of GBP510/AS03; the between-group SCR difference of 10.8% (95% CI 7.68–14.32) also satisfied the non-inferiority criterion (95% CI lower limit > −5%). Neutralizing antibody titres sustained higher for the GBP510/AS03 group compared to the ChAdOx1-S group through 6 months after the second vaccination. In Safety analysis (Cohort 1 & 2), the proportion of participants with adverse events (AEs) after any vaccination was higher with GBP510/AS03 vs. ChAdOx1-S for solicited local AEs (56.7% vs. 49.2%), but was similar for solicited systemic AEs (51.2% vs. 53.5%) and unsolicited AEs (13.3% vs. 14.6%) up to 28 days after the second vaccination. No safety concerns were identified during follow-up for 6 months after the second vaccination. Interpretation: Our interim findings suggested that GBP510/AS03 met the superiority criterion for neutralising antibodies and non-inferiority criterion for SCR compared with ChAdOx1-S, and showed a clinically acceptable safety profile. Funding: This work was supported, in whole or in part, by funding from CEPI and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Investments INV-010680 and INV-006462. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation supported this project for the generation of IND-enabling data and CEPI supported this clinical study.

Original languageEnglish
Article number102140
JournaleClinicalMedicine
Volume64
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023

Keywords

  • COVID-19
  • Immunogenicity
  • Nanoparticle vaccine
  • Recombinant protein vaccine
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Safety

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