The aim of this study is to analyze the medical illustrations that appeared in the Journal of Craniofacial Surgery (JCFS) during the last 3 years (2016-2018).All illustrations in 2676 articles from 24 issues were analyzed.In total, 363 articles (13.6%) contained illustrations (for total of 589 illustrations), and 38 articles (1.4%) cited illustrations from other articles. The number of illustrations increased over time (152 in 2016, 181 in 2017, and 256 in 2018; P = 0.007). The signature of the illustrator appeared in 16.5% of the illustrations, and the illustrator's name was acknowledged in 7.6%. The most frequent contents of the 589 illustrations were surgical procedures (55.4%), followed by anatomy (34.1%). Among the 555 illustrations showing regions of the body, the most frequently illustrated region was the oral cavity (41.6%), followed by the eye and periorbital region (18.4%), the nose (12.4%), and the head (11.4%). Of the 555 illustrations showing tissue, the tissue most frequently depicted was bone (52.8%), followed by soft tissue (42.5%). The mean score for clarity of the intended message was 3.5 ± 1.2. The mean score for artistic skill was 3.2 ± 1.0.As the number of illustrations in JCFS increases, it is increasingly important that information on the illustrators be given. The journal editor should recommend that authors provide the illustrators' information. From the author's perspective, the best illustration is one that tells the story the author wants to convey to readers. Therefore, the crucial point is the expression of the author's goal, rather than the esthetics of the illustration.