Identification of Emerging Roadkill Hotspots on Korean Expressways Using Space–Time Cubes

Minkyung Kim, Sangdon Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Collisions with wild animals on high-speed expressways not only lead to roadkill but can also cause accidents that incur considerable human and economic costs. Based on roadkill data from 2004–2019 for four common wildlife species involved in collisions with vehicles on expressways in Korea (water deer, common raccoon dog, Korean hare, and wild boar), the present study conducted optimized hotspot analysis and identified spatiotemporal patterns using a space–time cube (STC) approach. Temporal and spatial differences in the roadkill data were observed between species. Water deer were the most common roadkill species of the four studied, with hotspots in the southern region of the capital area, in the Chungnam region, and in the western Chungbuk and Gangwon-do regions. However, the instances of water deer roadkill over time differed between each region. In addition, it was found that the number of cases of wild boar roadkill has increased recently. In particular, a number of new hotspot areas were observed centered on the metropolitan area Gyeonggi-do, which contains a high population and significant infrastructure. Overall, the emerging hotspot analysis based on STCs was able to determine cold spot and hotspot trends over time, allowing for a more intuitive understanding of spatiotemporal clustering patterns and associated changes than cumulative density-oriented hotspot analysis. As a result, it becomes easier to analyze the causes of roadkill and to establish reduction measures according to priority.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4896
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number6
StatePublished - Mar 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the Korea Environment Industry and Technology Institute (KEITI), funded by the Korea Ministry of Environment (MOE) (2020002990006; 2022003640003). This research was supported by the National Research Foundation funded by the Korean government (NRF-2021R1A2C1011213; 2020R1I1A1A01058327). The authors also wish to thank the Korea Expressway Corporation for providing data.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the authors.


  • priority
  • reduction measure
  • spatiotemporal
  • water deer
  • wildlife–vehicle collision


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