Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by Aβ-induced pathology and progressive cognitive decline. The incidence of AD is growing globally, yet a prompt and effective remedy is not available. Aging is the greatest risk factor for AD. Brain aging proceeds with reduced vascularization, which can cause low oxygen (O 2 ) availability. Accordingly, the question may be raised whether O 2 availability in the brain affects AD pathology. We found that Tg-APP/PS1 mice treated with 100% O 2 at increased atmospheric pressure in a chamber exhibited markedly reduced Aβ accumulation and hippocampal neuritic atrophy, increased hippocampal neurogenesis, and profoundly improved the cognitive deficits on the multiple behavioral test paradigms. Hyperoxygenation treatment increased the expression of BDNF, NT3, and NT4/5 through the upregulation of MeCP2/p-CREB activity in HT22 cells in vitro and in the hippocampus of mice. In contrast, siRNA-mediated inhibition of MeCP2 or TrkB neurotrophin receptors in the hippocampal subregion, which suppresses neurotrophin expression and neurotrophin action, respectively, blocked the therapeutic effects of hyperoxygenation on the cognitive impairments of Tg-APP/PS1 mice. Our results highlight the importance of the O 2 -related mechanisms in AD pathology, which can be revitalized by hyperoxygenation treatment, and the therapeutic potential of hyperoxygenation for AD.