ConspectusMolecular oxygen (O2), the greenest oxidant, is kinetically stable in the oxidation of organic substrates due to its triplet ground state. In nature, O2 is reduced by two electrons with two protons to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and by four electrons with four protons to produce water (H2O) by oxidase and oxygenase metalloenzymes. In the process of the two-electron/two-proton and four-electron/four-proton reduction of O2 by metalloenzymes and their model compounds, metal-oxygen intermediates, such as metal-superoxido, -peroxido, -hydroperoxido, and -oxido species, are generated depending on the numbers of electrons and protons involved in the O2 activation reactions. The one-electron reduction of metal-oxygen intermediates is coupled with the binding of one proton. Such a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) is defined as proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), and there is a mechanistic dichotomy whether HAT occurs via a concerted PCET pathway or stepwise pathways [i.e., electron transfer followed by proton transfer (ET/PT) or proton transfer followed by electron transfer (PT/ET)]. The metal-oxygen intermediates formed are oxidants that can abstract a hydrogen atom (H-atom) from substrate C-H bonds. The H-atom abstraction from substrate C-H bonds by the metal-oxygen intermediates can also occur via a concerted PCET or stepwise PCET pathways. In the PCET reactions, a proton can be provided not only by the substrate itself but also by an acid that is added to a reaction solution.This Account describes the reactivities of metal-oxygen intermediates, such as metal-superoxido, -peroxido, -hydroperoxido, and -oxido complexes, in HAT reactions, focusing on the mechanisms of PCET reactions of metal-oxygen intermediates and on the mechanistic dichotomy of concerted versus stepwise pathways. Recent developments in the reactivity studies of Cr-, Fe-, and Cu-superoxido complexes in H-atom and hydride transfer reactions are discussed. Reactivities of an iron(III)-hydroperoxido complex and an iron(III)-peroxido complex binding redox-inactive metal ions are also summarized briefly. Mononuclear nonheme iron(IV)- and manganese(IV)-oxido complexes have shown high reactivities in HAT reactions, and their chemistry in PCET reactions is discussed intensively. Acid-catalyzed HAT reactions of metal-oxygen intermediates are also discussed to demonstrate a unified driving force dependence of logarithm of the rate constants of acid-catalyzed oxidation of various substrates by an iron(IV)-oxido complex and that of PCET from one-electron donors to the iron(IV)-oxido complex. PCET reactions of metal-oxygen intermediates are shown to proceed via a concerted pathway (one-step HAT) or a stepwise ET/PT pathway depending on the ET and PCET driving forces (-ΔG). The boundary conditions between concerted versus stepwise PCET pathways are clarified to demonstrate a switchover of the mechanisms only by changing the reaction temperature in the boundary conditions. This Account summarizes recent developments in the HAT reactions by synthetic mononuclear nonheme metal-oxygen intermediates over the past 10 years.