Hybrid Augmented Reality for Participatory Learning: The Hidden Efficacy of Multi-User Game-Based Simulation

Seungjae Oh, Hyo Jeong So, Matthew Gaydos

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

34 Scopus citations


The goal for this research is to articulate and test a new hybrid Augmented Reality (AR) environment for conceptual understanding. From the theoretical lens of embodied interaction, we have designed a multi-user participatory simulation called ARfract where visitors in a science museum can learn about complex scientific concepts on the refraction of light through full-body immersion using optical see-through AR glasses, projection-based AR, and gesture technology. In particular, we developed two different types of simulations for ARfract , namely a game-based simulation and a non-game simulation to explore how the order of different AR simulations influences the perceived usability, user behaviors, learning experiences, and learning outcomes. For the experiment, 10 dyads were randomly assigned to one of the two experimental conditions: 1) the game-to-non-game condition and 2) the non-game-to-game condition. The results indicate that the learners who experienced the game-based simulation before the non-game simulation performed better than did the other group with the reversed experience order. This paper also reports the usability, user behaviors, and learning experience issues regarding the affordances of hybrid AR technologies. The major contribution of this proof-of concept research is that it articulates our understanding of how particular configurations (i.e., order) of the emerging technologies (i.e., hybrid Augmented Reality systems) and its use can lead to different learning outcomes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)115-127
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies
Issue number1
StatePublished - 1 Jan 2018

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 IEEE.


  • Augmented Reality
  • embodied interaction
  • informal learning
  • refraction of light
  • wearable technology


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