Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been shown to promote angio-genesis. However, the mechanism behind this effect remains largely unknown. Therefore, in this study, the mechanism of HA-induced angiogenesis was examined. CD44 and PKCδ were shown to be necessary for induction of the receptor for HA-mediated cell motility (RHAMM), a HA-binding protein. RHAMM was necessary for HA-pro-moted cellular invasion and endothelial cell tube formation. Cytokine arrays showed that HA induced the expression of plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 (PAI), a downstream target of TGFβ receptor signaling. The induction of PAI-1 was dependent on CD44 and PKCδ. HA also induced an interaction between RHAMM and TGFβ receptor I, and induction of PAI-1 was dependent on RHAMM and TGFβ receptor I. Histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3), which is decreased by HA via rac1, reduced induction of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) by HA. ERK, which interacts with RHAMM, was necessary for induction of PAI-1 by HA. Snail, a downstream target of TGFβ signaling, was also necessary for induction of PAI-1. The down regulation of PAI-1 prevented HA from enhancing endothelial cell tube formation and from inducing expression of angiogenic factors, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and MMP-2. HDAC3 also exerted reduced expression of MMP-2. In this study, we provide a novel mechanism of HA-promoted angiogenesis, which involved RHAMM-TGFβRI signaling necessary for induction of PAI-1.
- Hyaluronic acid
- TGFβ signaling