Chalcopyrite CIS or CIGS have been regarded as promising absorbing materials for thin-film solar cells with widespread commercialization prospects. The most critical material properties of a CIS absorption layer that affect the overall PV performance include its microstructure and composition at a given bandgap energy. In this study, dense CISe films with high crystallinity and uniform, flat surfaces were fabricated on In2Se3/ITO employing single bath electrochemical deposition by adjusting the deposition parameters, such as the precursor concentration, pH, and applied potential. A simple formula is presented based on Faraday's law to quantitatively estimate the density of the electrodeposited thin films; from this, it was found that the as-deposited films had a very high relative density of 0.73. The high green density of the as-deposited film led to the full densification of the CISe film with ca. 10 μm sized grains. The binary selenide phase remaining in the sintered film was subsequently etched out using a KCN solution, resulting in an overall Cu-deficient composition in the film of [Cu]/[In] = 0.95.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by the program of Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) and the “National Agenda Project” program of Korea Research Council of Fundamental Science & Technology (KRCF) .
- Packing density
- Relative density
- Solar cell