We aimed to evaluate whether obesity was associated with a certain clinicopathologic characteristics of metachronous CRA. This retrospective longitudinal cohort study included 2,904 subjects who had at least one resected CRA at index colonoscopy and who subsequently underwent one or more surveillance colonoscopies within 5 years. Of the 2,904 subjects, 60.9% (n = 1,769) were normal, 35.8% (n = 1,040) were overweight, and 3.3% (n = 95) were obese. Patients with any metachronous CRA were 53.7% (n = 1,559). In multivariate analyses, higher BMI at index colonoscopy was significantly associated with any metachronous CRA (overweight, OR = 1.07; obese, OR = 1.82; p for trend = 0.049). Regarding the multiplicity, the ORs of ≥ 3, ≥ 4 and ≥ 5 metachronous CRAs significantly increased as index BMI increased (p for trend < 0.001, = 0.007 and = 0.004, respectively). In negative binomial regression regarding the incidence for total number of metachronous CRA, the higher BMI the subject has at the time of index colonoscopy, the more metachronous CRAs the subject will have at the surveillance colonoscopy (p for trend = 0.016). Higher index BMI was significantly associated with the risk of multiple metachronous CRAs on surveillance colonoscopy within 5 years.