Mononuclear nonheme manganese complexes are highly efficient catalysts in the catalytic oxidation of hydrocarbons by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of carboxylic acids. Although high-valent Mn(V)-oxo complexes have been proposed as the active oxidants that afford high regio-, stereo-, and enantioselectivities in the catalytic oxidation reactions, the importance of the spin state (e.g., S = 0 or 1) of the proposed Mn(V)-oxo species is an area that requires further study. In the present study, we have theoretically demonstrated that a mononuclear nonheme Mn(V)-oxo species with an S = 1 ground spin state is the active oxidant that effects the stereo- and enantioselective alkane hydroxylation reaction; it is noted that synthetic octahedral Mn(V)-oxo complexes, characterized spectroscopically and/or structurally, possess an S = 0 spin state and are sluggish oxidants. In an experimental approach, we have investigated the catalytic hydroxylation of alkanes by a mononuclear nonheme Mn(II) complex, [(S-PMB)MnII]2+, and H2O2 in the presence of carboxylic acids; alcohol is the major product with high stereo- and enantioselectivities. A synthetic Mn(IV)-oxo complex, [(S-PMB)MnIV(O)]2+, is inactive in C-H bond activation reactions, ruling out the Mn(IV)-oxo species as an active oxidant. DFT calculations have shown that a Mn(V)-oxo species with an S = 1 spin state, [(S-PMB)MnV(O)(OAc)]2+, is highly reactive and capable of oxygenating the C-H bond via oxygen rebound mechanism; we propose that the triplet spin state of the Mn(V)-oxo species results from the consequence of breaking the equatorial symmetry due to the binding of an equatorial oxygen from an acetate ligand. Thus, the present study reports that, different from the previously reported S = 0 Mn(V)-oxo species, Mn(V)-oxo species with a triplet ground spin state are highly reactive oxidants that are responsible for the regio-, stereo-, and enantioselectivities in the catalytic hydroxylation of alkanes by mononuclear nonheme manganese complexes and terminal oxidants.