Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) thin-film solar cells have been fabricated by various methods. Sputtering is one of the vacuum processes that can be used for the growth of the precursors. In this study, CZTSSe thin-films that were fabricated using metal-precursors and with a high efficiency of 12.3% were examined in a comparison with CZTSSe thin-films that were fabricated using compound-precursors, whose efficiency is 9.1%. Especially, the Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) analysis and local current measurement by conductive atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) show that their local electrical properties indicate completely opposite results. The grain boundaries (GBs) has a downward surface potential bending, and this repelled the minority carriers into the intragrains (IGs) in the sample from the metal-precursors. Therefore, we originally verified the differences between the carrier behaviors and the current flows on the surface.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by two grants ( 2016M1A2A2936753 and 2016M1A2A2936784 ) of the Technology Development Program for the solving of climate change, and these were provided through the National Research Foundation (NRF), funded by the Ministry of Education, Republic of Korea . Further, a grant ( 17-BD-05 ) of the D aegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) Research and Development (R&D) Program, funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning, Republic of Korea , was provided along with another NRF grant ( 2017R1D1A1B03034293 ) from the Basic Science Research Program.
© 2018 Elsevier B.V.
- Carrier behavior
- Compound precursors
- Kelvin probe force microscopy
- Metal precursors
- Surface potential