A hybrid film consisting of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is formed on a glass substrate using a simple and swift spin coating process for the use in ultraviolet photodetectors (UV PDs). The incorporation of various types of CNTs into ZnO NPs (ZnO@CNT) enhances the performance of UV PDs with respect to sensitivity, photoresponse, and long-term operation stability when compared with pristine ZnO NP films. In particular, the introduction of single-walled CNTs (SWNTs) exhibits a superior performance when compared with the multiwalled CNTs (MWNTs) because SWNTs can not only facilitate the stability of free electrons generated by the O2 desorption on ZnO under UV irradiation owing to the built-in potential between ZnO and SWNT heterojunctions, but also allow facile and efficient transport pathways for electrons through SWNTs with high aspect ratio and low defect density. Furthermore, among the various SWNTs (arc-discharged (A-SWNT), Hipco (H-SWNT), and CoMoCat (C-SWNT) SWNTs), we demonstrate the ZnO@A-SWNT hybrid film exhibits the best performance because of higher conductivity and aspect ratio in A-SWNTs when compared with those of other types of SWNTs. At the optimized conditions for the ZnO@A-SWNT film (ratio of A-SWNTs and ZnO NPs and electrode distance), ZnO@A-SWNT displays a sensitivity of 4.9 × 103 % with an on/off current ratio of ~104 at the bias of 2 V under the UV wavelength of 365 nm (0.47 mW/cm2). In addition, the stability in long-term operation and photoresponse time are significantly improved by the introduction of A-SWNTs into the ZnO NP film when compared with the bare ZnO NPs film.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding: This research was supported by the Korea Electric Power Corporation (grant number: R18XA02). This work was also supported by the Korea Institute of Energy Technology Evaluation and Planning (KETEP) and the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE) of the Republic of Korea (No. 20194030202290).
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- Carbon nanotube
- Hybrid film
- Ultraviolet photodetector
- Zinc oxide nanoparticle