Low-grade inflammation might be a link between obesity and obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction, including diabetes, hepatic steatosis, and other health complications. This study investigated whether the supplementation of high hydrostatic pressure extract of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves (HML) to obese rats could counteract obesity-related inflammation. Three-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into three groups as follows: (a) a normal diet, (b) 45% high-fat (HF) diet, and HF diet containing 0.4% HML (c) or 0.8% HML (d) (IACUC No. 17-033). After 14 weeks of HML supplementation, adipose tissue mass, mRNA expression of adipogenic genes, such as aP2, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPARγ), and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and macrophage recruitment were significantly decreased in HF-fed obese rats. Serum concentrations of nitric oxide and mRNA levels of arginase1 (Arg1), CD11c, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) involved in adipose tissue macrophage M1 polarization were also significantly reduced by HML. Moreover, HML alleviated the serum and hepatic lipid profiles and reduced hepatic lipogenic gene expression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36), CPT1, fatty acid synthase (FAS), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD1), and SREBP1c, and inflammation-associated genes, including IL1β, interleukin 6 (IL6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Serum IL6 and TNFα levels were remarkedly suppressed in the 0.8% HML group. These results suggested that the favorable effect of HML on obesity-associated inflammation might be related in part to the decrease in adipose tissue and hepatic fat deposition and inflammation.
- adipose tissue macrophage recruitment
- mulberry leaf extract