Heterotic SO(32) model building in four dimensions

Kang Sin Choi, Stefan Groot Nibbelink, Michele Trapletti

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19 Scopus citations


Four dimensional heterotic SO(32) orbifold models are classified systematically with model building applications in mind. We obtain all ℤ3, ℤ7 and ℤ2N models based on vectorial gauge shifts. The resulting gauge groups are reminiscent of those of type-I model building, as they always take the form SO(2n0) × U(n1) × ⋯ ×...×U(nN-1) × SO(2nN). The complete twisted spectrum is determined simultaneously for all orbifold models in a parametric way depending on n0,⋯, nN, rather than on a model by model basis. This reveals interesting patterns in the twisted states: They are always built out of vectors and anti-symmetric tensors of the U(n) groups, and either vectors or spinors of the SO(2n) groups. Our results may shed additional light on the 5-duality between heterotic and type-I strings in four dimensions. As a spin-off we obtain an SO(10) GUT model with four generations from the ℤ4 orbifold.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1517-1555
Number of pages39
JournalJournal of High Energy Physics
Issue number12
StatePublished - 1 Dec 2004


  • String Duality
  • Superstring Vacua
  • Superstrings and Heterotic Strings


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