We report herein the sonochemical synthesis of a lanthanum dioxide carbonate (La2O2CO3) and zinc ferrite (ZnFe2O4)-loaded reduced graphene oxide (LZF-rGO) nanoheterostructure for ultrasound (US)-assisted degradation of methyl orange (MO) from water. The MO was chosen as a model organic dye due to its toxicological and biodegradable-resistant properties. The LZF-rGO catalyst was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results of characterizations confirmed successful synthesis of sonocatalyst. Among different removal systems, US/LZF-rGO displayed outstanding sonodegradation performance for degradation of MO. The maximum removal efficiency of 75.9% was achieved using 0.2 g/L sonocatalyst, 20 mg/L MO, and 0.71 W/cm2 US power intensity for 65 min. MO can be partially adsorbed on LZF-rGO but mostly sonodegraded by reactive radical species. The reaction conditions were optimized by investigating the effect of key operating parameters, including the sonocatalyst dosage, initial MO concentration, US power intensity, presence of inorganic salts, and use of an enhancer, on the decolorization of MO. The degradation intermediates produced from MO during the sonocatalytic process were identified by UPLC®/MS-MS, and possible mechanism and pathway for the degradation of MO in the US/LZF-rGO system were also proposed. Reusability experiments with this sonocatalyst revealed a less than 10% drop in the degradation efficiency after four adsorption–desorption cycles.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea funded by the Ministry of Education ( NRF-2018R1A6A1A03024962 and NRF-2018R1D1A1B07040341 ) and the Korea Ministry of Environment (The SEM projects; 2018002470005 ).
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.
- Doped reduced graphene oxide
- Methyl orange