The pathogenesis of inflammatory skin diseases involves interactions between immune cells and keratinocytes, including the T helper 17 (Th17)-mediated immune response. Several chemokines [chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, CXCL5 and CXCL8] and antimicrobial peptides [-defensin 1 (BD1), LL-37, S100A8 and S100A9] were transcriptionally upregulated in the keratinocyte cell line HaCaT upon stimulation with interleukin (IL)-17. Balneotherapy, the treatment of disease by bathing, is an alternative therapy that has frequently been used for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. Immersion in pools of thermal mineral water is often considered to have chemical, thermal, mechanical and immunomodulatory benefits. We examined the effect of thermal treatment on IL-17-mediated inflammation in a model of skin disease. As Act1 is required for IL-17 signaling and is a client protein of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), we evaluated the effect of HSP90 inhibition on IL-17-mediated cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression in keratinocytes following heat treatment. We found that after thermal stimulation, Act1 binding to HSP90 was significantly increased in the presence of IL-17 (100 ng/ml) and 17-N-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG, 1 M). Antimicrobial peptide and chemokine expression generally increased after heat treatment; Act1 knockdown and 17AAG reversed this effect. These observations demonstrate the possible immunomodulatory effect of heat on keratinocytes during the progression of IL-17-mediated inflammatory skin diseases.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The present study was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning (2013R1A1A3A04006995).
- Heat shock protein 90
- Inflammatory skin disease
- Thermal effect