Recently, metal halide perovskite materials have received significant attention as promising candidates for optoelectronic applications with tremendous achievements, owing to their outstanding optoelectronic properties and facile solution-processed fabrication. However, the existence of a large number of grain boundaries in perovskite polycrystalline thin films causes ion migration, surface defects, and instability, which are detrimental to device applications. Compared with their polycrystalline counterparts, perovskite single crystals have been explored to realize stable and excellent properties such as a long diffusion length and low trap density. The development of growth techniques and physicochemical characterizations led to the widespread implementation of perovskite single-crystal structures in optoelectronic applications. In this review, recent progress in the growth techniques of perovskite single crystals, including advanced crystallization methods, is summarized. Additionally, their optoelectronic characterizations are elucidated along with a detailed analysis of their optical properties, carrier transport mechanisms, defect densities, surface morphologies, and stability issues. Furthermore, the promising applications of perovskite single crystals in solar cells, photodetectors, light-emitting diodes, lasers, and flexible devices are discussed. The development of suitable growth and characterization techniques contributes to the fundamental investigation of these materials and aids in the construction of highly efficient optoelectronic devices based on halide perovskite single crystals.