Hadley Circulation in the Present and Future Climate Simulations of the K-ACE Model

Ije Hur, Minju Kim, Kyungmin Kwak, Hyun Min Sung, Young Hwa Byun, Hajoon Song, Changhyun Yoo

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Hadley circulation (HC) is a planetary-scale overturning circulation in the tropics that transports momentum, heat, and moisture poleward. In this study, we evaluate the strength and extent of the HC in the historical and future climate simulations of the Korean Meteorological Administration (KMA) Advanced Community Earth system model (K-ACE), which was recently developed by the National Institute of Meteorological Sciences of Korea. Compared with a reanalysis product, the overall structure of the HC is reasonably reproduced by the K-ACE. At the same time, it is also found that the Northern Hemisphere HC in the K-ACE is shifted southward by a few degrees, while the strength of the Southern Hemisphere (SH) HC is under-represented by approximately 20%. These biases in the strength and extent of the HC can be explained by biases in the eddy momentum flux and precipitation in the tropics. In the future climate simulations under the Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 5-Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario, the HCs in the K-ACE show a weakening and widening trend in both hemispheres, which is consistent with the projections of many Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 6 models. A notable feature of the K-ACE is the widening of the SH HC, which takes place at a rate that is about double the multi-model mean. Climate models that share the component models with the K-ACE, such as UKESM, HadGEM3-GC31-LL, and ACCESS-CM2/ESM1, also show enhanced poleward expansion of the HC in the SH. This strong expansion is shown to be dominated by the expansion of the regional HC over the Pacific.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)353-363
Number of pages11
JournalAsia-Pacific Journal of Atmospheric Sciences
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s).


  • CMIP
  • Hadley circulation
  • Historical simulation
  • K-ACE model
  • Scenario simulation


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