G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle by a ginseng metabolite, compound K, in U937 human monocytic leukamia cells

Ah Kang Kyoung, Wan Kim Yeong, Uk Kim Seung, Sungwook Chae, Sang Koh Young, Sun Kim Hee, Kyung Choo Min, Hyun Kim Dong, Won Hyun Jin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

We recently reported that the ginseng saponin metabolite, compound K (20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-20(S)-protopanaxadiol, IH901), inhibits the growth of U937 cells through caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway. In this study, we further characterized the effects of compound K on U937 cells and found that, in addition to apoptosis, compound K induced the arrest of the G1 phase. The compound K treated U937 cells showed increased p21 expression; an inhibitory protein of cyclin-cdk complex. The up-regulation of p21 was followed by the inactivation of cyclin D and the cdk4 protein, which act at the early G1 phase, and cyclin E, which acts at the late G1 phase. Furthermore, compound K induced the activation of JNK and the transcription factor AP-1, which is a downstream target of JNK. These findings suggest that the up-regulation of p21 and activation of JNK in the compound K treated cells contribute to the arrest of the G1 phase.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)685-690
Number of pages6
JournalArchives of Pharmacal Research
Volume28
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - 30 Jun 2005

Keywords

  • AP-1
  • Apoptosis
  • Compound K
  • G phase
  • JNK
  • p21
  • U937 cell

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'G1 phase arrest of the cell cycle by a ginseng metabolite, compound K, in U937 human monocytic leukamia cells'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this