Background: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) can increase populations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, innate immune suppressors that play an immunoregulatory role in antitumor immunity. However, the roles of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and G-CSF in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury remain unclear. Methods: We used mouse models of ischemia-reperfusion injury to investigate whether G-CSF can attenuate renal injury by increasing infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells into kidney tissue. Results: G-CSF treatment before ischemia-reperfusion injury subsequently attenuated acute renal dysfunction, tissue injury, and tubular apoptosis. Additionally, G-CSF treatment suppressed renal infiltration of macrophages and T cells as well as renal levels of IL-6,MCP-1, IL-12, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, but it increased levels of IL-10, arginase-1, and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, administering G-CSF after ischemiareperfusion injury improved the recovery of renal function and attenuated renal fibrosis on day 28. G-CSF treatment increased renal infiltration of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (F4/80-CD11b+Gr-1int), especially the granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell population (CD11b+Ly6GintLy6Clow); splenic F4/80-CD11b+Gr-1+ cells sorted from G-CSF-treated mice displayed higher levels of arginase-1, IL-10, and reactive oxygen species relative to those from control mice. Furthermore, these splenic cells effectively suppressed in vitro T cell activationmainly through arginase-1 and reactive oxygen species, and their adoptive transfer attenuated renal injury. Combined treatment with anti-Gr-1 and G-CSF showed better renoprotective effects than G-CSF alone, whereas preferential depletion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells by pep-G3 or gemcitabine abrogated the beneficial effects of G-CSF against renal injury. Conclusions: G-CSF induced renalmyeloid-derived suppressor cells, thereby attenuating acute renal injury and chronic renal fibrosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury. These results suggest therapeutic potential of myeloid-derived suppressor cells and G-CSF in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.