Background: In ginseng, there exists a glycolipoprotein complex with a special form of lipid LPAs called Gintonin. The purpose of this study is to show that Gintonin has a therapeutic effect on rheumatoid arthritis through LPA2 receptors. Methods: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) were treated with Gintonin and stimulated with interleukin (IL)-1β. The antioxidant effect of Gintonin was measured using MitoSOX and H2DCFDA experiments. The anti-arthritic efficacy of Gintonin was examined by analyzing the expression levels of inflammatory mediators, phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)/p65 into the nucleus through western blot. Next, after treatment with LPAR2 antagonist, western blot analysis was performed to measure inflammatory mediator expression levels, and NF-κB signaling pathway. Carrageenan/kaolin-induced arthritis rat model was used. Rats were orally administered with Gintonin (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg) every day for 6 days. The knee joint thickness, squeaking score, and weight distribution ratio (WDR) were measured as the behavioral parameters. After sacrifice, H&E staining was performed for histological analysis. Results: Gintonin significantly inhibited the expression of iNOS, TNF-α, IL-6 and COX-2. Gintonin prevented NF-κB/p65 from moving into the nucleus through the JNK and ERK MAPK phosphorylation in FLS cells. However, pretreatment with an LPA2 antagonist significantly reversed these effects of Gintonin. In the arthritis rat model, Gintonin suppressed all parameters that were measured. Conclusion: This study suggests that LPA2 receptor plays a key role in mediating the anti-arthritic effects of Gintonin by modulating inflammatory mediators, the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.
- Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS)
- Kaolin/carrageenan-induced arthritis
- Lysophosphatidic acids (LPAs)