Geography of food consumption patterns between South and North China

Fangfang Song, Mi Sook Cho

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66 Scopus citations


The geographical environment, food culture, and dietary habits are substantially different between the southern and northern regions in China. We investigated the associations with dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome between Chinese adult from the southern and northern regions (North: 1249; South: 1849) using data from the Chinese Health and Nutrition 2009 survey. Respectively, four dietary patterns were identified by factor analysis in each of the two regions. Using factor analysis, each dietary pattern of factor score was calculated for three groups by tertile (T1 < T2 < T3). In the northern region, the association between the Alcohol and Western pattern and the risk of abdominal obesity (OR: 1.31; 95%: 1.01, 1.68) (OR: Odds Ratio), hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.35; 95%: 1.05, 1.74), high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.37; 95%: 1.05, 1.80), and hypertension (OR: 1.55; 95%: 1.45, 1.99) was increased compared T1 to T3. In the southern region, the Convenience Food pattern was positively associated with hypertriglyceridemia (OR: 1.53; 95%: 1.03, 2.26), low high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (OR: 1.96; 95%: 1.12, 3.43), and metabolic syndrome (OR: 1.79; 95%: 1.03, 3.11). The Alcohol dietary pattern was positively associated with high fasting blood glucose (OR: 1.83, 95%: 1.13, 2.97). There are some dietary pattern differences in the two regions. It is necessary to consider the factors of food culture and food intake habits in order to provide nutrition education to Chinese individuals from different regions in the future.

Original languageEnglish
Article number34
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2017

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research use data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). The authors thank the National Institute of Nutrition and food safety, China Center for Disease Control and Prevention; the Carolina Population Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; the National Institutes of Health; and the fogarty International Center, NIH, for financial support for the CHNS data collection and analysis files since 1989. We thank those parties, the China-Japan Friendship Hospital, and the Ministry of Health for support for CHNS and future survey. And would like to thank the researchers at the Food and Culture Laboratory, Ewha Womans University for their support and help on data measurements.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Chinese adults
  • Dietary pattern
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • North region
  • South region


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