Future changes in boreal winter MJO teleconnections over the Pacific–North America (PNA) region are examined in 15 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 models (CMIP6s) under SSP585 (i.e., Shared Socioeconomic Pathway 5 following approximately the representative concentration pathway RCP8.5) scenarios. The most robust and significant change is an eastward extension (∼48 eastward for the multimodel mean) of MJO teleconnections in the North Pacific. Other projected changes in MJO teleconnections include a northward extension, more consistent patterns between different MJO events, stronger amplitude, and shorter persistence; however, these changes are more uncertain and less significant with a large intra- and intermodel spread. Mechanisms of the eastward teleconnection extension are investigated by comparing impacts of the future MJO and basic state changes on the anomalous Rossby wave source (RWS) and teleconnection pathways with a linear baroclinic model (LBM). The eastward extended jet in the future plays a more important role than the eastward-extended MJO in influencing the east–west position of MJO teleconnections. It leads to more eastward teleconnection propagation along the jet due to the eastward extension of turning latitudes before they propagate into North America. MJO teleconnections thus are positioned 2.98 more eastward in the North Pacific in the LBM. The eastward extended MJO, on the other hand, helps to generate a more eastward-extended RWS. However, negligible change is found in the east–west position of MJO teleconnections (only 0.38 more eastward in the LBM) excited from this RWS without the jet impacts. The above results suggest the dominant role of the jet change in influencing future MJO teleconnection position by altering their propagation pathways.
- Climate change
- General circulation models
- Madden-Julian oscillation
- Pacific-North American pattern/oscillation