Further examining the American dream: Differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals

Tim Kasser, Richard M. Ryan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1457 Scopus citations

Abstract

Empirical research and organismic theories suggest that lower well-being is associated with having extrinsic goals focused on rewards or praise relatively central to one's personality in comparison to intrinsic goals congruent with inherent growth tendencies. In a sample of adult subjects (Study 1), the relative importance and efficacy of extrinsic aspirations for financial success, an appealing appearance, and social recognition were associated with lower vitality and self-actualization and more physical symptoms. Conversely, the relative importance and efficacy of intrinsic aspirations for self-acceptance, affiliation, community feeling, and physical health were associated with higher well-being and less distress. Study 2 replicated these findings in a college sample and extended them to measures of narcissism and daily affect. Three reasons are discussed as to why extrinsic aspirations relate negatively to well-being, and future research directions are suggested.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)280-287
Number of pages8
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume22
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1996

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