Background/Objectives: Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pregnancy is known to increase oxidative stress, which may influence pregnancy outcomes and health of the child. Subjects/Methods: This study investigated whether fruit and vegetable intake modifies the relationship between exposure to PAHs and oxidative stress status during pregnancy. Urinary levels of 2-naphthol and 1-hydroxypyrene (biomarkers of exposure to PAHs), and malondialdehyde (MDA; a biomarker of oxidative stress) were analyzed in 715 pregnant women at 12-28 weeks of gestation. The dietary antioxidant intake during pregnancy was estimated using the 24-h recall method. Urinary 2-naphthol, 1-hydroxypyrene and MDA levels were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Results: The urinary MDA level was positively correlated with the 2-naphthol level (r=0.255, P<0.001) and 1-hydroxypyrene level (r=0.240, P<0.001). Multiple regression analysis after adjustment for covariates revealed that the urinary 1-hydroxypyrene level was positively associated with the MDA level; these positive associations only existed in pregnant women, with either the fruit and vegetable intake or the vitamin C intake in the first tertile (<390.1 g/day) or in the first and second tertiles (<141.5 mg/day), respectively.Conclusions:These results suggest that an adequate maternal intake of fruit, vegetables and vitamin C is beneficial to the defense against the oxidative stress associated with exposure to PAHs in pregnant women.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported by the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) Project of the Ministry of Environment, Republic of Korea.
- fruit and vegetable
- pregnant women
- vitamin C