Floating and fidelity in nest visitation by crawfordapis luctuosa (hymenoptera: colletidae)

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We studied nest visitation behavior of the ground-nesting bee Crawfordapis luctuosa (Colletidae) at the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve, Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica. Some females entered many nests, while others consistently entered only one nest. Multiple nest entry was exhibited by bees we called floaters, and those bees that consistently entered only one nest were provisioning bees. Provisioning bees abandoned their old nests after provisioning periods and became nonprovisioning bees that floated over the nesting area. Floating behavior was a nest-searching behavior typified by oscillating flights just above the ground (<15 cm). Floaters investigated available nests and were not observed to interact aggressively with nest owners. Upon establishing a new nest, floaters became provisioning bees.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)493-504
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Insect Behavior
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996


  • Crawfordapis luctuosa
  • Floating behavior
  • Nest fidelity
  • Nest visitation
  • Nesting aggregation


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