FlexPro MD, a Mixture of Krill Oil, Astaxanthin, and Hyaluronic Acid, Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Cytokine Production Through Inhibition of NF-κB

Doo Ri Park, Ryeojin Ko, Suk Hyung Kwon, Bokkee Min, Seong Ho Yun, Manh Heun Kim, John Minatelli, Stephen Hill, Soo Young Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Scopus citations

Abstract

FlexPro MD® (FP-MD), a novel multi-ingredient dietary supplement formulation, has been demonstrated to relieve knee joint pain in humans. However, the mechanisms of action responsible for the activity of FP-MD have not been elucidated. In this study, we show the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD in RAW264.7 macrophage cells and mice challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). FP-MD significantly inhibited the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and IL-1β. In contrast, it elevated the mRNA levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. FP-MD markedly reduced LPS-induced phosphorylation levels of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α). Importantly, the anti-inflammatory effects of FP-MD were demonstrated in mice with LPS-induced inflammatory arthritis in which FP-MD significantly reduced the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory markers. Thus, this study suggests that FP-MD has anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting NF-κB that may offer a molecular basis for its pain relief property.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1196-1203
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Medicinal Food
Volume19
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2016

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition 2016.

Keywords

  • NF-jB
  • astaxanthin
  • cytokines

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